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59BTP-House / ONG&ONG Pte Ltd

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first_img Year:  Photographs Architects: ONG&ONG Pte Ltd Year Completion year of this architecture project CopyHouses, Extension•Singapore 59BTP-House / ONG&ONG Pte LtdSave this projectSave59BTP-House / ONG&ONG Pte Ltd 59BTP-House / ONG&ONG Pte Ltd 2014 CopyAbout this officeONG&ONG Pte LtdOfficeFollowProductWood#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRefurbishmentExtensionHousesRefurbishmentSingaporePublished on March 13, 2015Cite: “59BTP-House / ONG&ONG Pte Ltd” 12 Mar 2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogSinkshansgroheBathroom Mixers – FocusGlass3MInterior Finishes at U.S. Bank StadiumPartitionsSkyfoldMarkerboard Finish for Folding WallsFiber Cements / CementsSwisspearlFiber Cement Cladding Panels in B66 Business CenterMembranesEffisusFaçade Protection – Breather+Metal PanelsSculptformClick-on Battens in WestConnex M8 JunctionPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesBruagBack-Ventilated Facades – CELLONTiles / Mosaic / GresiteMargresPorcelain Tiles – Linea CosmosGlassDip-TechCeramic Printing for Public TransportationAcousticSchöckStaircase Insulation – Tronsole®Porcelain StonewareApavisaSlabs – Wild ForestBulbs / SpotsAmbiance LumiereLighting – ZetaMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Year:  Singapore ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/608259/59btp-house-ong-and-ong-pte-ltd Clipboardcenter_img 2014 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/608259/59btp-house-ong-and-ong-pte-ltd Clipboard Save this picture!© Derek Swalwell+ 33 Share photographs:  Derek SwalwellPhotographs:  Derek SwalwellSave this picture!© Derek SwalwellText description provided by the architects. This was an Additions and Alterations project on an existing house in Bukit Timah. The owner’s father built the original house and the building was in an awkward position on the plot. According to the brief, the client wanted to have two master bedrooms along with four bedrooms – this required additional floor area as the original house area could not comfortably fit in the extra rooms. However, the architects resolved to make use of the existing structure and maintain its orientation by simply adding an additional volume to accommodate the extra bedrooms and ensuite bathrooms.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe finished work is a successful amalgamation of the old house – with its 1950s look – and the new wing that closely follows the original structure whilst suitably updating it according to modern architectural trends. For example, a stonewall in the original house was replaced with a concrete wall to give it a more modern finish whilst still staying true to the spirit of the earlier design. Wherever possible, the original material was retained, such as the plaster that forms the upper levels. Also, the designers tried to maintain a similar look, so the new structure replicates the design of the old house by keeping the top volume bigger than the first floor, which is recessed. Visually, the house appears to be a new building, yet there are scattered elements that make the older house recognisable even within this newer build, and that was essentially what the client desired for his childhood home.Save this picture!© Derek Swalwell1st FloorBecause of the scale of renovation work required, the internal layout of the original house was drastically altered, although the main entrance was kept in the same place. In the old layout, there was a five-step staircase leading down to a sunken living room and then up to the second floor. With the new layout, the living area was raised up to keep everything on the same level and the staircase was repositioned to the connecting lobby that now leads to the new wing. Located at the entrance, this lobby forms the connection between the new and old sections of the building and beautifully marries the two structures for a homogeneously modern look.Save this picture!Floor PlanBecause of the flexibility of this design, the house can be made private or more open according to the owner’s needs. Another requirement from the client was that all social spaces be naturally ventilated. As such, the entire living and dining area has floor-to-ceiling glass windows that can be pulled back to create a completely open space that looks out into the pool and garden areas outside. The old kitchen was also demolished to allow the dining room to be extended while the remaining space was kept as the service volume. Meanwhile, the old guestroom was demolished to create the lower master bedroom with ensuite bathroom. This room has a lounge area as well as an outside deck that overlooks the pool. Aesthetically, the main volumes of the house appear to be floating on the surface of the pool, as a recess was created at the base of the first floor, making the house’s structure look lighter.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe design also ensures that the service areas are hidden yet remain completely functional, while the service quarters are also designed for maximum comfort. To improve pedestrian access from street level, the original gated entrance was redesigned to have the sidewalk extended and an additional volume created. The shape of the additional structure conforms to the irregular geometry of that corner of the site.Save this picture!© Derek Swalwell2nd FloorIn the original layout, the second level had an unusually shaped outdoor pathway that connected the master bedroom with the rest of the bedrooms in the main building. Furthermore, the old staircase’s position limited the amount of space for the bedrooms, which were also irregularly shaped. Post-renovation, the pathway was replaced with a bridge while the removal of the old staircase allowed for the existing bedrooms to be made bigger. The bedrooms were also reshaped into more regular forms to maximise each room’s floor area. There are now three bedrooms, as well as a family room linked by a corridor.Save this picture!Floor PlanThe upper master bedroom boasts an ensuite bathroom, walk-in wardrobe, and a balcony that looks out into the back garden. For his room, the client had also requested for a special desk to be built to form the backing of his bed, making it look like a bed board. From this desk, he could also enjoy views of the garden.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellMaterialsThe façade for the first floor volume is made from concrete while the second floor is in plaster. All the walls make use of plaster paint. As for the flooring, the first level uses beige Travertine while the upper floor uses solid teak. The main door is also made from solid teak. In the master bathrooms, pure grey marble was employed, while the rest of the bathroom floors make use of sandalwood mosaic.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellSustainabilityAn open, cross-ventilation strategy was used in the layout of the house, allowing it to be naturally ventilated and illuminated throughout the day. Louvers in the morning-sun-facing rear façade help to control the internal temperature, while a water feature at the front of the house also helps to cool the surrounding air before it enters the house. With this redesign, the quality of temperature and light control within the house was greatly improved. The client was also very insistent that the existing gardens be preserved as much as possible, so very few of the original trees were removed.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellProject gallerySee allShow less25 Green / Luciano PiaSelected ProjectsBaiyunting Culture and Art Center / Dushe Architectural Design CoSelected Projects Share Projects ArchDaily Houses “COPY” “COPY”last_img read more

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Estimates of Southern Ocean primary production—constraints from predator carbon demand and nutrient drawdown

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first_imgIn view of the wide range of estimates for the total primary production for the Southern Ocean south of the Subantarctic Front—current estimates range from 1.2 to 3.5 Gtonne C year−1—we have examined two indirect methods for assessing primary production. First, we have estimated the primary production needed to sustain the carbon requirements of the endotherm top predators in the ecosystem. Estimation of the carbon requirements for crabeater seals of about 7 Mtonne C year−1 is extrapolated to a value for all endotherm predators of 15–30 Mtonne C year−1. Current data indicate that 70–80% of the diet of this suite of predators is zooplankton (predominantly the euphausiid krill), making for highly efficient transfer from primary production to top predators. Our best estimate of Southern Ocean primary production by this method is of the order of 1.7 Gtonne C year−1, or an averaged areal primary production of about 30–40 g C m−2 year−1. Our second approach is to estimate primary production from the drawdown of inorganic nutrients, based on the limited suite of studies from which an annual nutrient deficit can be calculated. Again, this indicates annual primary production of the order of 1.5 Gtonne. Although both methods have inherent uncertainties, taken together they provide a relatively robust constraint on annual primary production. For both methods to underestimate primary production by the 1–1.5 Gtonne C implied by the higher current estimates, carbon export from the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem would need to be much higher than is normally found in other oceans.last_img read more

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Agreeing to disagree

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first_imgBreyer’s book examines how U.S. courts should respond to the new reality of interdependence that globalization has ushered into areas previously thought to be immune, like the law. He encourages judges to become more attuned to legal thinking outside the country and to be more considerate both of the implications of American legal decisions on foreign nations in areas like national security and trade, and of how such international experiences might inform better American legal decisions.Discussing his disagreement with Justice Clarence Thomas over whether it is appropriate for the U.S. Supreme Court to consider and cite decisions made by courts outside this country, Breyer said he understands Thomas’ view that measuring the United States against the standards of other nations ultimately undermines our sovereignty. “He sees this as protecting certain American values.”But unlike Europe, which has much more homogenous roots that can withstand a more narrowly tailored legal view, this “experiment” known as American democracy is best protected by drawing from a far wider scope of ideas, Breyer argued.“We are a very motley group of people, everybody under the sun,” he said. “The whole point of this thing is to say, ‘Please go look at what concretely this interdependence has meant for our institution and now make a decision: Tell me, isn’t it true, and I hope the answer would be yes, that … we are more likely to succeed and to continue to succeed with our experiment by paying a lot of attention — not just a little — to what goes on beyond our shores.’” <a href=”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEX2Des_y_E” rel=”nofollow” target=”_blank”> <img src=”https://img.youtube.com/vi/lEX2Des_y_E/0.jpg” alt=”0″ title=”How To Choose The Correct Channel Type For Your Video Content ” /> </a> A reflective Justice Breyer From the outside, it can look like life on the U.S. Supreme Court is little more than a succession of sour exchanges between ideological gladiators, a grind that’s more intellectual food fight than dispassionate debate.But for all of the tough talk and purple prose that can find its way into the court’s most closely watched 5-4 decisions, Associate Justice Stephen Breyer, LL.B ’64, says don’t mistake the rhetoric of political disagreement with personal animosity. This is not an angry bunch who can’t see straight enough to understand the arguments on both sides of an issue.“I’ve never heard one judge in that room say something really mean, even in a joking way, about another. It doesn’t happen. It’s professional,” Breyer told students during a talk at Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) last Friday where he touched on landmark cases like Citizens United, the death penalty, and judicial sentencing reform. It’s only natural, he said, given the court’s complicated task interpreting the “borders” of important but frequently opaque areas of the Constitution like the First or 14th Amendments. “Of course, there are disagreements. Why shouldn’t there be disagreements?”Where court observers like to point to the dramatic, felicitous language of a Justice Antonin Scalia opinion, for example, as proof of smoldering hostilities on the bench, Breyer waved away that notion, saying Scalia just has a writer’s irresistible love for a good turn of phrase. “We all know that. We don’t mind. … That’s not a good reason to get angry at somebody personally if you’re sitting in my seat,” he said.A former professor at both HKS and Harvard Law School (HLS) between 1967 and 1994 before his nomination to the Supreme Court by President Bill Clinton in 1994, Breyer was at Harvard to discuss his new book, “The Court and the World: American Law and the New Global Realities,” with David Gergen, public service professor of public leadership and co-director of the Center for Public Leadership at HKS, and Nancy Gertner, a former U.S. District Court judge in Massachusetts and now a senior lecturer at HLS. Related Longtime jurist explains inner workings of Supreme Court Asked about his dissent in the Citizens United campaign-funding case, Breyer said the case was far tougher “than people give it credit for.” With no constitutional limit on free speech in politics, the case centered on what should be done about the average person who can only give a modest sum like $20 competing with those who can give $20 million for the attention of politicians and believing that the giver of $20 million will have more influence.“That’s a problem,” said Breyer. “I’ve said it’s a First Amendment problem because the purpose of the First Amendment, among other things, is to create a marketplace of ideas” by which the country’s founders meant “a public opinion that could actually have an influence on the policy that emerges from our elected institutions. There has to be a connection, that’s why [James] Madison and the others thought there would be such a connection. Now, when you have five people giving $20 million each or $2 million or $5 million … and you have hundreds of millions giving $10 each, it’s the big givers who will cut that connection. And even if it weren’t true, people would think it was true, and as long as they think it is true, there won’t be the necessary faith in that institution.”Asked by Gertner about his role in helping to set judicial sentencing guidelines in the 1980s, standards that have come under fire for being overly harsh and unfair, particularly to African-Americans, and that are now being reconsidered by Congress, Breyer defended the sentencing commission’s original intent, which was to close what had been a troubling variation between sentences handed down and the individual whims of judges. The guidelines were supposed to be just that, he said, not hard-and-fast rules that deliberately limited a judge’s discretion. But decades later, there’s rare bipartisan agreement that the guidelines created more problems than they solved.“This was meant to be a movement — not perfection — but a … move toward uniformity,” Breyer said. “If I had to do it over again, I think I’d do it. I understand it’s unpopular and I understand there are a lot of good criticisms, but I think I’d do it.”When a student asked whether there’s tension between the individual identity of the justices and their deliberations on cases, Breyer was characteristically even-handed.“I would say no in the sense that whether you are a Latina, whether you are a woman, whether you are an African-American [or] whatever, you have a case in front of you, and these are judges, and they’re going to try to get that case right. So, it’s in that sense, no,” he said.“Now, I’m from San Francisco. I have the background I’ve had. I have the life that I’ve had, and that has had a hand in shaping what I think of the [Constitution] and the way it relates to people in America and what our country’s about, which plays a role in interpreting many of these words — and so have the others. And because life experiences differ and because no two people are alike and because we’re not a group of computers, of course,” Breyer said with a mischievous laugh. “So I’m tempted to say, ‘absolutely not’ and ‘of course!’ ”last_img read more

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