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Estimates of Southern Ocean primary production—constraints from predator carbon demand and nutrient drawdown

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first_imgIn view of the wide range of estimates for the total primary production for the Southern Ocean south of the Subantarctic Front—current estimates range from 1.2 to 3.5 Gtonne C year−1—we have examined two indirect methods for assessing primary production. First, we have estimated the primary production needed to sustain the carbon requirements of the endotherm top predators in the ecosystem. Estimation of the carbon requirements for crabeater seals of about 7 Mtonne C year−1 is extrapolated to a value for all endotherm predators of 15–30 Mtonne C year−1. Current data indicate that 70–80% of the diet of this suite of predators is zooplankton (predominantly the euphausiid krill), making for highly efficient transfer from primary production to top predators. Our best estimate of Southern Ocean primary production by this method is of the order of 1.7 Gtonne C year−1, or an averaged areal primary production of about 30–40 g C m−2 year−1. Our second approach is to estimate primary production from the drawdown of inorganic nutrients, based on the limited suite of studies from which an annual nutrient deficit can be calculated. Again, this indicates annual primary production of the order of 1.5 Gtonne. Although both methods have inherent uncertainties, taken together they provide a relatively robust constraint on annual primary production. For both methods to underestimate primary production by the 1–1.5 Gtonne C implied by the higher current estimates, carbon export from the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem would need to be much higher than is normally found in other oceans.last_img read more

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Doing a number on the 49ers; intriguing prep matchup

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first_img Not only did his Niners get flattened like a tortilla, but it’s adios to the Giants’ baseball season season and the Stanford football team no es bueno. Only seems like yesterday the proprietor was watching Jim Plunkett out-duel Washington hotshot Sonny Sixkiller at Stanford Stadium. Murph the Bartender sat alone at the Shortstop Grill bar on Sunday night, in a black Irish mood. The lowly Arizona Cardinals had just made chorizo out of his beloved 49ers before more than 103,000 in Mexico City. It was enough to drive the proprietor to drink, except he’s always an outstanding role model for our youth. Unbeaten Mission Viejo plays visiting Concord De La Salle (3-1) Friday night in an intriguing SoCal vs. NorCal prep football showdown. De La Salle is still mighty good, we like the Diablos by seven. … At the opposite end of the prep food chain, it’s Rialto vs. Fontana on Friday night at Steeler Stadium. The winless teams lost by a combined 115-0 last week, but this is a golden opportunity for both to gain some respect. … Redlands and Redlands East Valley meet at 7:30 p.m. Friday at the University of Redlands’ Ted Runner Stadium in the Smudge Pot game. The stadium holds 7,074, and this game sometimes sells out. Pre-sale tickets are available at the finance offices of both schools. … The pressbox wags were at it Friday night in Lake Arrowhead during Rim of the World’s 47-7 loss to Palm Springs. Rim went three-and-out on its first two series, then Palm Springs was called for having too many men on the field as Rim punted. “Man, that’s the problem,” Rim P.A. announer Jerry Eynan said. “We’ve been playing against 12 guys.” … A patron in Crestline, Pappy Papworth, called to give us static about our “Ask the Experts” picks for last week. Seems our flip-a-coin method has faltered, because we picked the Chiefs to beat the Eagles. Meantime, Papworth went 16-4. Nice going, Pappy. John Murphy serves up frosty ones and tasty tidbits every Tuesday at the Shortstop Grill. Contact him at (909) 386-3853 or berdooman 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!center_img AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREThe top 10 theme park moments of 2019 Since then they’ve not only taken away Stanford’s nickname, but also its ability. Two weeks ago the Cardinal lost to UC-Davis. Perhaps it can schdule College of San Mateo next year. Now, let’s get Grill-ing. That 49ers loss Sunday is the Niners’ first Super Bowl defeat. Well, Mexican Super Bowl, anyway. … Fans south of the border found the Cardinal-Niner ticket prices of $23 to $80 a bit pricey. Join the club. … Pat Knight will become Texas Tech’s basketball coach when his dad Bob Knight retires. Or gets fired for choking someone. … Carl Henderson, the former Victor Valley High School star football player, e-mails The Grill occasionally. He follows not only his alma mater, but also Rialto. Seems Henderson played his freshman year for the Knights and his sister was class salutatorian there. … last_img read more

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