AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis 28 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis The Charities Advisory Trust has announced the high street retailers that give the least to charity from sales of charity Christmas cards. In its 6th Annual Scrooge Awards, which aim to highlight cards which generate less than 10% for charities, the ‘winner’ was Harrods.The awards are based on a survey by the Charities Advisory Trust (CAT) of all main high street shops which offer charity Christmas cards. This is carried out in the last week of October and early November.CAT says that it announces the awards “to alert the public to the sham of cards purporting to be charity cards where less than 10% of the purchase price actually goes to charity.” Advertisement ‘Meanest’ charity Christmas card retailers announced Howard Lake | 19 November 2007 | News Tagged with: christmas corporate Harrods Research / statistics Trading About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. A spokesperson for Harrods told UK Fundraising: “Retailers do not set the level of donation – which is clearly marked on the packaging – this is negotiated and agreed between the card manufacturer and the charities who, one assumes, enter into these arrangements willingly with full possession of the facts and are grateful for the money the donations deliver.”CAT is not optimistic about retailers’ policies towards charity Christmas cards. It reports that “retailers are more anxious than ever to use the charity cachet to help sell their goods”. For example, John Lewis now sells only charity Christmas cards. However, 38% of the designs (181 out of a range of 478) gave less than 10% to charity. For this reason, even though they gave 25% to charity on their own range of Christmas cards, John Lewis received CAT’s Georgy Porgy prize for greed.CAT’s Director Hilary Blume wonders why charities agree to these poor deals. Surprisingly it is the large charities, with valuable brands and presumably huge leverage, which agree to deals that give them so little. CAT cites Cancer Research UK, NSPCC, BHF, Alzheimer’s Society, MacMillan Nurses, Oxfam and British Red Cross as organisations which have not drawn the line at accepting less than 10% from Christmas card sales.CAT argues that the percentage does matter. Card Aid, its trading subsidiary which it set up 20 years ago to maximise profits for charity, gives at least 40% to charity. As a result, it argues that sales of two of its packs (of 10 cards at £4.99) pay for a month’s schooling for a child in Africa, and sales of 68 of its cards (in packs of six for £5.99) paid for a cataract operation, which restored the sight of Deborah, a retired head teacher in Africa. The lower the percentage a charity receives, the less it can achieve with the income. Harrods won the 2007 Scrooge Award because “of their range of 202 charity cards nearly 95% gave less than 10% to charity.” The card with the least going to charity was at Harrods: Caspari (25 designs in aid of Alzheimer’s Society and Macmillan Nurses) generated 4% for charity.
Estimates of Southern Ocean primary production—constraints from predator carbon demand and nutrient drawdownPosted on by
In view of the wide range of estimates for the total primary production for the Southern Ocean south of the Subantarctic Front—current estimates range from 1.2 to 3.5 Gtonne C year−1—we have examined two indirect methods for assessing primary production. First, we have estimated the primary production needed to sustain the carbon requirements of the endotherm top predators in the ecosystem. Estimation of the carbon requirements for crabeater seals of about 7 Mtonne C year−1 is extrapolated to a value for all endotherm predators of 15–30 Mtonne C year−1. Current data indicate that 70–80% of the diet of this suite of predators is zooplankton (predominantly the euphausiid krill), making for highly efficient transfer from primary production to top predators. Our best estimate of Southern Ocean primary production by this method is of the order of 1.7 Gtonne C year−1, or an averaged areal primary production of about 30–40 g C m−2 year−1. Our second approach is to estimate primary production from the drawdown of inorganic nutrients, based on the limited suite of studies from which an annual nutrient deficit can be calculated. Again, this indicates annual primary production of the order of 1.5 Gtonne. Although both methods have inherent uncertainties, taken together they provide a relatively robust constraint on annual primary production. For both methods to underestimate primary production by the 1–1.5 Gtonne C implied by the higher current estimates, carbon export from the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem would need to be much higher than is normally found in other oceans.
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