S. Omahen, UGA CAES Milk and fresh juices could soon taste better and stay fresh longer, thanks to a breakthrough pasteurization method developed at the University of Georgia. The new method uses high pressure instead of heat. HIGH-PRESSURE PASTEURIZATION keeps juice fresh without heat. Above, UGA research coordinators pour orange juice into the new device. Below, the juice is bottled for storage. “Right now, the process of heating changes the flavor of juices and milk,” said Romeo Toledo, a food scientist with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “The result is a cooked flavor that many people can detect.” In some cases, the current pasteurization process can even change a product’s color. “In intense cases, the product can turn brown,” Toledo said. “In mild cases, the color doesn’t change. But the flavor still does. The difference isn’t quite as detectable in milk as it is in juices.” The flavor change was just one reason UGA scientists sought a new pasteurization method. “Three or four years ago, an outbreak of E. coli was linked to unpasteurized apple juice,” Toledo said. “The processors don’t want to pasteurize their juices because it changes the flavor and people won’t buy it. But they also know people won’t buy it if it could make their families sick.” Toledo said apple and orange juices can contain E. coli and Salmonella if not properly pasteurized. “This is because the fruit sometimes comes from farms where cattle graze in the orchards,” he said. Since the E. coli outbreak, the Food and Drug Administration requires processors of unpasteurized juices to place warning labels on their products. “This isn’t a large market. It’s a specialty niche market,” Toledo said. “People who buy this juice expect the flavor to be there.” Traditional pasteurization heats the product to at least 180 degrees to kill any microorganisms. Then it’s cooled and stored. S. Omahen, UGA CAES KEEPING OJ FRESH can be a high-pressure job for Romeo Toledo, above. He’s developed a way to pastuerize fruit juices and milk without heat that can change the drink’s flavor or color. During the process, a sudden change in pressure breaks apart and destroys the potentially dangerous microorganisms’ cells. Tests show it kills a greater percentage of microorganisms than heat pasteurization. S. Omahen, UGA CAES Toledo’s new method uses high pressure. “We subject the juice or milk to high pressure and then suddenly drop the pressure,” Toledo said. “When we drop the pressure, we pass the liquid through a small opening at a very high velocity — almost at the speed of sound.” Toledo said the pressure breaks apart and destroys the microorganisms’ cells. Tests show it kills a greater percentage of microorganisms than heat pasteurization. As if that weren’t enough, it also extends the shelf life. “Fresh-squeezed fruit juices are limited to about a 10-day shelf life now,” Toledo said. “With the new method, you could have a shelf life of up to two months.” In his Athens lab, Toledo has bottles of milk that were pasteurized four months ago and are still fresh — “as long as you don’t open the bottle,” he said. “Once you open the bottle, it will start toÿ go bad just like traditionally pasteurized milk.” Saving the product’s original flavor could also open the market for new products. “Many specialty cheeses lose their flavor as a result of heat pasteurization,” Toledo said. “They could now be processed using the high-pressure method.” Toledo has processed peaches, a fruit that historically loses flavor during processing, with great results. “Using this system, the peach juice tastes like you squeezed it right out of the fruit,” he said. “You can’t tell the difference.” Taste panelists loved the samples processed by the new method. “Most couldn’t tell the difference between our product and fresh-squeezed,” Toledo said. The new method even helps milk curdle better. “The milk produced yogurt with a firmer curd,” Toledo said. “Traditionally processed milk doesn’t produce a very firm curd. Yogurt producers have to add gums to increase the consistency.” UGA has filed for a patent on the high-pressure pasteurization method and is working closely with industries that may adopt it. “The next step will be to scale up our prototype for industrial use,” Toledo said. “We’re demonstrating the method to potential industries. We hope to see someone begin using it over the next couple of years.”
Held every two years, FIDAE is a Chilean Air Force (FACh)-sponsored exhibition aimed at promoting development in the aerospace, defense, and security industries. Chilean and Uruguayan officials agreed to update the scope of the Defense Cooperation Agreement, which the countries executed in 2007, to assist each other in achieving their national defense goals and creating a functional mechanism to advance initiatives within that framework. By Dialogo May 19, 2016 As part of the cooperation agreement, Chilean and Uruguayan authorities conducted a thorough bilateral evaluation of the region as well as the entities that are part of it. They also discussed their world vision and addressed the existing threats and vulnerabilities facing the region, primarily in the sub-region formed by Chile and Uruguay. “Updating the cooperation agreement consists of exchanging experiences, such as how we organize our defense structure, the relationship between the civilian and military spheres from a defense perspective, and the participation of women in defense,” Undersecretary Menéndez told Diálogo. “All our work in defense confirms the good relations between the two countries.” “Thanks to the intimate relationship we have with Chile, we have refurbished a series of combat items which, essentially, are armored personnel transport vehicles. Chile’s defense industry has refurbished these units. In the Air Force, our Hercules planes have been handled by the Chilean Air Force,” he added. Uruguay is not a large drug-producing nation, but narcotraffickers exploit the country’s porous borders with Argentina and Brazil. The Port of Montevideo sees numerous containers to smuggle narcotics including cocaine – the main drug trafficked through the country – Uruguayan daily El Observador reported. Chile chairs CICTE On March 4th, Chile assumed the chair of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE), which was created in 1999 with the primary goal of fostering and promoting cooperation among members of the Organization of American States, especially when it comes to preventing, combating, and eliminating terrorism. During its term as CICTE chair, Chile intends to promote boosting cooperation and development in security throughout the region, according to Chile’s Ministry of Foreign Relations. In February 2015, a bomb exploded in front of a church in Santiago, but no one was injured. However, in September 2014, an explosion on the Metro left 14 wounded and, a few days later, a homeless person died after handling a bomb. Approximately 200 bombs have exploded in the Chilean capital over the last few years, reported Perú’s daily El Comercio. Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs Heraldo Muñoz called upon the international community to take united, pragmatic action to fight drug trafficking while respecting human rights. Muñoz made his remarks during the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the Global Drug Problem. At the meeting’s end, Menéndez and Robledo Hoecker specifically mentioned their countries’ significant Military participation in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti. They also discussed the women’s involvement across disciplines in the Armed Forces under different scenarios initiated by each Ministry of Defense, according to the Chilean Office of the Undersecretary of Defense. The Chilean and Uruguayan militaries will work together closely by exchanging intelligence and personnel, in addition to carrying out joint exercises. In addition to exchanging their experiences about how their countries can bolster their wars on terrorism, Chile and Uruguay will work together to fight money laundering, which is a precursor to terrorist activities, and human trafficking, which often is linked to organized crime and drug trafficking. “Chile and Uruguay have very porous coasts by virtue of being located on the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans,” Undersecretary Menéndez said. “We have a constant flow of information about certain factors that represent a risk to our countries, such as drug trafficking. Chile, Uruguay fight narco-trafficking “Terrorism is one of the existing threats that is of concern to all countries and institutions in the world,” Undersecretary Menéndez said. “Terrorism knows no borders. We cannot confront terrorism alone; we must face it through recognized actions and other actions that must take place within a United Nations framework. Uruguay rejects and repudiates any type of violence or terrorism. Uruguay supports solutions that are reached through international law. Chile and [Uruguay] are of the same opinion on this sort of threat.” “Relations with Chile are at an optimal point, from a defense perspective,” Undersecretary Menéndez said. “Our governments are governments that are on the same page from a multilateral point of view and their mutual respect for each country’s internal decisions. “Today we share missions. We are both in Haiti,” Undersecretary Menéndez said. “We are trying to participate in the mission that will begin in Colombia, once the peace agreements are signed.” Uruguay and Chile are working together to reach their national defense goals within the context of the 2016 International Air and Space Fair (FIDAE). Uruguayan Vice Minister of Defense Jorge Menéndez Corte met with his Chilean counterpart, Undersecretary of Defense Marcos Robledo Hoecker, on March 31st in Santiago, Chile, for the first political and strategic dialogue between the nations’ undersecretaries of Defense.
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